Normalizing EMG to BG Muscle Activation Masks Medication-Induced Reductions Amplitudes in Parkinsonian Rigidity.

Exaggerated reflex responses to passive stretch and shortening contribute to parkinsonian rigidity. Studies have reported medication-induced reductions in rigidity in the absence of attenuated reflex magnitudes. The purpose of this study was to determine if normalization procedures mask medication-induced reductions in reflex responses in Parkinson’s disease.

Twelve participants with PD performed passive wrist flexion and extension movements after a 12-hour withdrawal from dopaminergic medication and 60 minutes after medication was administered. EMG was recorded from wrist flexors and extensors. Raw EMG signals were conditioned and normalized to mean background EMG amplitudes collected 100 ms prior to the onset of passive movement by division and by subtraction.

Raw EMG amplitudes were significantly reduced. No medication-related reductions were observed during passive flexion or extension when EMG amplitudes were normalized by division. When EMG amplitudes were normalized by subtraction, significant reductions were observed following administration of dopaminergic medication during flexion and extension. Dopaminergic medication was associated with significant reductions in rigidity work scores and significant increases in moment-angle slope plots. These findings demonstrate that EMG normalization techniques may hinder data interpretation in studies of altered reflex responses in individuals with Parkinson’s disease following the administration of dopaminergic medication.


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My interest in health and fitness started at a young age. Even though I had been educated and trained as an engineer in Europe I always want to follow my passion. I have made some guest appearances on a health educational program TV in Europe and, this experience, has made me follow my passion of sharing wellness information with others.

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